N.B.: Some terms used in this document have definitions
specific to the world of design and architecture. These terms are italicized
throughout and their definitions many be found in Section XI at the end of the
document. The references to the City’s
Code of Ordinances are those sections in effect as of the date these Guidelines
were adopted. Property owners should
determine if any subsequent changes have been made to these ordinances that
would apply to the University Architectural Conservation District (UACD).
SECTION I PURPOSE
Design Guidelines are criteria and
standards that the Design and Development Review Commission (DDRC) must
consider in determining the appropriateness
of proposed work within a historical district. Appropriateness
of work must be determined in order to accomplish the goals of historical
zoning, which are:
· Protect the beauty of the City and
improve the quality of its environment through identification, recognition,
conservation, maintenance and enhancement of areas, sites, and structures that
constitute or reflect distinctive features of the economic, social, cultural,
or architectural history of the city and its distinctive physical features;
· Foster appropriate
use and wider public knowledge and appreciation of such features, areas, sites,
· Resist and restrain environmental
influences adverse to these goals;
· Encourage private efforts in support
of these goals; and
· Promote the public welfare, strengthen
the cultural and educational life of the city, and make the city a more
attractive and desirable place to live and work by furthering these goals.
SECTION II DISTRICT PRINCIPLES
The University Architectural
Conservation District (UACD) was designated in 1964. The homes in the district
generally date from 1895 to 1940 and include at least two structures that date
from the 1860s. This neighborhood is the living record of how life in Columbia
was lived in a residential neighborhood that borders not only the state capitol
but also the state’s flagship university. The population mix of politicians, businesspersons and university
faculty gives the neighborhood the same character today as it had at the turn
of the twentieth century.
Apart from the historical continuity
of the population of the neighborhood, the beauty of the homes and the upkeep
of its properties make it a pleasing area for all citizens of the city to walk
or drive through on their ways either to downtown or to Five Points. The aesthetic pleasure derives in part from
the consistency of design and scale in the individual structures of the area,
as well as their relationship to the street and one another.
These guidelines are intended to
support the desire of the neighborhood to preserve and protect the essential
character and design of structures and natural features in this exceptionally
historical district in order to maintain an environment that has been
aesthetically pleasing and environmentally attractive for well over a century.
The predominantly residential character of the neighborhood is fundamental to
its identity. Each family’s home is a unique expression within the styles and
designs of the neighborhood and probably that family’s greatest financial
investment. The structures of this area form a significant part of the living
history of Columbia. History is nevertheless a process and in order for any
neighborhood to remain vital, it must grow and renew itself. As the
neighborhood develops in the twenty-first century, some old structures may be
lost and new ones will arise. In this part of the historical process, there
must be no loss of appreciation for the neighborhood’s background, character,
and function in relation to the City as a whole. The neighborhood has recently
seen creatively designed new constructionsthat
also maintain the neighborhood’s scale, character, massing and established
setbacks. Developments in design such as
allowed to follow their course, consistent with the principles of this unique
community. The present guidelines encourage such creative enhancements to this
For the above reasons, most of the University Hill area is designated
by the City of Columbia as an Architectural Conservation District (see map
following Section XI). The following design guidelines are established to apply design control
to those selected characteristics that are necessary to maintain the health and
continued vitality of this important residential neighborhood and discourage
those elements that may threaten these goals or the goals set forth in Section
· Preserve the historically and
architecturally significant structures in the area.
· Maintain and enhance landmark
aspects of the area, such as the Senate Street median and historical homes.
· Encourage the rehabilitation rather
than demolition of disused structures
· Encourage those who restore, rehabilitate, orreconstruct existing structures or
build new ones to follow the characteristics of design outlined below that give
the area its special character of grace and elegance.
· Encourage the preservation of the neighborhood’s
natural features, including landscaping in the public right-of-way and the
district’s existing site contours.
SECTION III HISTORICAL
SIGNIFICANCE, BOUNDARY DESCRIPTION & DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
A. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE
(Excerpted from 2004 NRHP Nomination Proposal)
The UACD is an
historically significant residential community that assumed its present appearance
between ca. 1885 and ca. 1950, both by being one of the oldest residential
communities in the city and by containing a range of architectural styles,
often exhibiting the work of regionally and locally prominent architects.
The UACD along with South Carolina
College was part of the original plan for Columbia, dating from its first
survey in 1787. In the original grid for Columbia’s streets, the two primary
boulevards were intended to be Senate and Assembly Streets, but the development
of the city did not follow this plan. As
Gervais Street became the principal commercial street, Senate Street developed
as a major residential street in the district. The completion of Trinity Episcopal Church in 1812 attracted many
residents of the area as did the Wesley Methodist Church at 1725 Gervais Street
in 1869. Many streets and lots in the UACD were not laid out until after 1850
and in 1860 city directories listed only six residences in the UACD.
Although much of the city was burned in 1865, the few existing houses in the present UACD were
virtually untouched by the fire. After the Civil War, Columbia began rebuilding
and attempting to revitalize its economy and population. As it did so, the
neighborhood grew, boasting celebrated residents like General Wade Hampton III
and Judge Alexander C. Haskell. By the
end of the nineteenth century, the streets were extended along their original
grid plan, and in 1896 a streetcar ran down Gervais Street to Harden. By 1875, when the eight residences in the
neighborhood of 1868 had grown to more than twenty, the size of the
neighborhood required that the streets be numbered. The predominantly
working-class and black residents lived side-by-side with the few middle-class
whites. By the turn of the twentieth century, the UACD was beginning to develop
the character that still exists today.
The improvement and expansion of the
city’s infrastructure that accompanied this growth drew more residents to the
neighborhood, and many professionals decided to make it home. By 1899, improvement and expansion of the
city’s drainage, electricity, and municipal water supply helped create a
neighborhood of over sixty residences, most now occupied by members of the
white middle class, as mill owners, bank presidents, and county officials moved
to the primary streets in the neighborhood. Prominent local architects like J.
Carroll Johnson, George E. Lafaye, Frank C. Walter, Charles Coker Wilson, James
B. Urquhart, and W.B. Smith-Whaley designed houses for the many of the
professionals and businessmen settling in the district. Electricity became
widely available after 1900 and the streets began to be paved in 1908. In 1910
the southern portion of the neighborhood along Greene Street was mostly
inhabited by African-American laborers, although in 1913 seven newly designed
houses for the upper-middle-class were built on Greene Street. During World War I, apartment buildings
opened around the neighborhood to accommodate the growing population of the
city. As the University of South
Carolina grew ever larger, several primary and secondary schools developed to
serve the area’s children. By the
mid-1920s, University Hill had developed into a middle-class neighborhood, home
to librarians, pharmacists, lawyers, real estate developers, faculty at the
University, and, at the eastern boundary, employees of the Southern Railroad.
In the period between the wars, the
UACD was home to some non-residential structures, including a grocery store and
several private schools, but by 1940 it had established the essentially
residential character it enjoys today. Large two-story homes lined the streets,
many with architectural detailing and decoration, landscaped front yards and
gardens surrounded many of the houses, giving the neighborhood an almost
suburban ambiance. Trees lined the
streets and provided shade and privacy for many residences. Apartment buildings and duplexes dotted the
neighborhood. The neighborhood was a mix
of architectural styles with single-family and multi-resident structures.
Some residents fled to the suburbs
in the post World-War-II era, but the demographics of the neighborhood have
seen only modest changes since that time. The growth of the University as a
result of the G.I. Bill in the late 1940s and the “baby boomers” of the 1960s
and 1970s saw some single-family residences converted to rental properties and
fraternity houses. University development projections in 1961 and 1965 called
for eastward expansion across Pickens to College Street and into the
residential area of the University Hill Neighborhood. To combat overcrowding on
campus, the university began purchasing apartment buildings and hotels, but
also renovated newly acquired houses in the residential area east of campus to
suit the needs of students. Often the
lifestyles of older neighborhood residents and college students conflicted and
landlords were frequently absentee. Dilapidation had begun when the influx of
new owner-occupants in the latter part of the 1970s, along with the designation
of the neighborhood as an “architectural conservation district” in 1964 began a rejuvenation of the area.
The eastern expansion of the
University meant the demolition
of more than 120 houses and the clearing or taking over of seven and one-half
blocks of the University Hill neighborhood. The new eastern boundary of the
University was established with the construction of Capstone House in 1967, in
the heart of the UACD, followed in quick succession by the Humanities Complex
(21 residential lots), Gambrell Hall (requiring the closing of parts of
Henderson and College Streets), the Close-Hipp (Business Administration) Building, the Williams Brice School of
Nursing, Columbia Hall and more than a dozen parking areas.
Despite the neighborhood’s
designation by the City of Columbia as an “Architectural Conservation
District,” the residents had little power against the physical and
architectural encroachments of the University. The
creation of the Landmarks Commission in 1974 was the beginning of protection
for the neighborhood from the intrusion of high-density residential and
commercial structures inappropriate
for the character of a neighborhood that was primarily zoned as a low-density
general residential district. Nevertheless, concern over the few higher-density
exceptions to the zoning rules, along with the number of properties that were in
violation of existing zoning ordinances led to the creation of the University
Neighborhood Association (subsequently named the University Hill Neighborhood
Association) which in 1999 approached the Columbia City Council about the
problems. As a result, the neighborhood was rezoned as a “Two-Family
Residential District,” protecting the
neighborhood from increasing high-density residential patterns, eliminating the
ease with which special exceptions incompatible
with the neighborhood’s character could be made, bringing the zoning and
architectural conservation guidelines into mutual compatibility, and
encouraging home ownership.
subsequently concluded a written agreement with the
University in 2003 regarding demolition
of the University’s neighborhood properties, restoration to residential use of
as many of its formerly residential holdings as practicable, and prohibition of
future expansion into the UACD. The Association also worked with Bell South
(now AT&T) to redesign the original plan for its switching
facility on Senate Street to harmonize with the
B. BOUNDARY DESCRIPTION
The UACD is generally bounded on the
north by Senate Street, on the east by the Norfolk and Southern Railroad, on
the south by Blossom and Devine Streets and on the west by Henderson
Street. It includes properties on these
east-west-running streets: the north and south sides of Senate Street, the
north and south sides of Pendleton Street, the north and south sides of College
Street, the north and south sides of Gibbes Court, the north and south sides of
Greene Street, and the north side of Devine Street. It includes properties on these
north-south-running streets: the east and west sides of Laurens Street, the
east and west sides of Gregg Street, the east and west sides of Barnwell
Street, and the east side of Henderson Street (for detail, see map following
C. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
The UACD is an urban residential
area, which is significant because it has maintained the character evident from
the original city grid of Columbia, which plotted four-acre residential blocks
with 100-foot-wide streets. Expansive
scale and leisurely surroundings were planned for Senate Street, with its
160-foot right-of-way and a forty-foot median. Despite a location in the center
of an active state capital, the houses throughout the neighborhood were set
back from the streets, with considerable open land around their buildings for
gardens and trees.
The majority of the 160 buildings in
this district are single-family residences,
with at least thirteen of Columbia’s earliest apartment complexes and fourteen
duplexes. The extant buildings in the UACD were constructed primarily in the
period from 1895 to 1940; however, there is at least one pre-Civil-War property
that was moved into the district’s boundaries and altered around 1910, as well
as several mid-1880s and early 1890s houses, one 1942 apartment building, and
one residence built in 1950. Most of
today’s buildings were constructed by 1919, with later development occurring in
the southern portion of the neighborhood along Greene Street and the eastern
boundary along Laurens Street. These buildings represent a wide variety of
early twentieth-century architectural styles and influences, including Queen
Anne, Tudor, Colonial Revival, Italian Renaissance Revival, and Craftsman. In addition, there are at least thirty
buildings within the current boundaries of the proposed district designed by
locally and regionally prominent architects mentioned in Section I.A. Most of
the properties consist of two-story wood-framed buildings with brick veneer,
clapboard siding, or wood shingles. Porches are common in this neighborhood and include entry, full-width,
wrap-around, and inset forms. To cope with the steep slope of the area south of
Senate Street, many buildings feature basements built to one side or in the
rear as a means of support along the steep hills.
SECTION IV ADMINISTRATION
A. ACTIONS THAT
REQUIRE DESIGN REVIEW
- Additions/Enclosures visible from the public right-of-way
- Actions that
alter the exterior appearance of a building
- Fences and walls
- Driveways and parking areas
- Accesory buildings
site work or site grading.
- Demolition or relocation
B. ACTIONS THAT DO
NOT REQUIRE REVIEW
General maintenance and repairs that do not alter the exterior appearance
Painting and Color
Work not visible from the public
See Columbia Code of Ordinances
Section 17-655 for more detailed information.
A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Apart from the handsome structures
of the UACD, much of the leisurely elegance and charm for which the
neighborhood is known derives from its wide tree-lined streets, generous
tree-zones, naturally hilly terrain, and setbacks. Public right-of-way featuresshould be planned to enhance the overall
character of the neighborhood and to sustain important features which have
historically been a part of the neighborhood.
1. Maintain the established historical pattern of street
trees in a block.
2. New plantings in the public right-of-way, must complement
the pattern established in the immediate area.
3. Damaged or diseased street trees must be replaced with a species similar in character or
form to those used historically.
4. The existence and vitality of the tree zones must be maintained and their use for private parking discouraged.
5. Existing site contours and slopes, as well as the
existing relationship of finished floor building elevations to street level,
must be respected and thoughtfully integrated into new construction plans.
2. FENCES AND WALLS
Fences and walls serve to demarcate
property lines and serve to distinguish between a yard, a sidewalk, and the
street. New fences and walls should
respect the use of traditional materials that are consistent with the materials
of the house, the block, and the neighborhood in general. They should
complement the building and not obscure significant features.
1. Fences or walls should be compatible with
the associated structure in design and materials.
2. Specific ordinances apply to heights and setbacks. See
Columbia Code of Ordinances, Section 17-277. Always check with the DDRC staff
3. The following materials are not permitted for fences or
walls visible from the public right-of-way: concrete (unless stuccoed or
veneered in brick); artificial siding material (e.g., T1-11 plywood, corrugated
metal, vinyl), chain link or wire fencing, and unfinished wood.
DRIVEWAYS AND PARKING AREAS
Given that most of the homes in the
neighborhood date from the horse-and-buggy era, garages are rare. Many homes do
not have proper driveways; many residents park on the street.
1. Consistent with the historical character of the homes,
driveways in historical districts must be no more than 10’ wide and shall be compatible with
the existing building and the site and setting of the historical district.
2. Appropriate materials for driveways include concrete, brick, or
brick pavers; other paving materials which allow for greater permeability may
be allowed, dependent upon their visual consistency with historical paving
3. Parking areas built in the tree zone are
disfavored, as destructive of the tree zone.
4. Designated vehicular parking shall be placed so as to
minimize its visual impact on the primary structure. As such, paving front
yards is vigorously discouraged, with absolute limitations imposed by
ordinance. See Columbia Code of Ordinances, Section 17-674 (f).
SECTION VI NEW CONSTRUCTION
The character of the UACD is
determined by its historical and stately residences. There are relatively few non-contributing
structures and there are very few vacant lots available for new
construction. Each new or replacement structure can affect the
character of the neighborhood positively or negatively and therefore must be
undertaken with great sensitivity to the existing buildings on a block or
street in terms of height, scale, proportion and rhythm of openings, setbacks,
orientation, spacing and ground elevation relative to the street and
surrounding development. New constructionshould be sympathetic to the
architecture of an earlier period, and must take into
account significant themes, such as height, materials, roof form, massing,
set-back, and the rhythm of openings to insure that any new building blends
with its context.
1. Height: The
characteristic height in UACD is two stories. New
buildings must be constructed to a height compatible
with the height of surrounding buildings.
2. Size & Scale: The
size and scale of a new building shall
be visually compatible
with surrounding buildings.
3. Massing: The mass of a new building (the relationship
of solid components (e.g., walls, columns, etc.) to open spaces (e.g., windows,
doors, arches)) shall be arranged so that it is compatible
with existing buildings on the block or street.
4. Setback: New
building shall be located on the site so that the
distance of the structure from the right-of-way is similar to other structures
on the block; new structures may be set back 5’ from the existing average of
the front yard setbacks on the structure’s block and immediately adjacent
5. Sense of Entry: The
main entrance and the associated architectural elements
(porches, steps, etc.) shall
be designed so that they are compatible
with surrounding structures. The main entrance shall be constructed with covered porches, porticoes, or other
architectural forms that are found on historical structures on the block or
street. Façadesshall have a strong sense of entry.
6. Rhythm of Openings: New
buildings shall be constructed so that the
relationship of width to height of windows and doors, and the rhythm of solids (walls)to voids (door & window openings) is visually compatible
with buildings on the block or street, with a
similar ratio of height to width in the bays of the façade.
façade patterns that upset the rhythm of openings established in surrounding
structures shall not be allowed.
7. Roof Shape: Roof shapes, pitches, and materials shall be visually compatible with
those of surrounding buildings. Most structures in the UACD have pitched roofs,
with gable, hip or a combination thereof as the predominant style. Roof shapes or pitches not found in the district should
not be used.
8. Outbuildings: Garage
and storage buildings shall reflect
the character of the existing house and be compatible
in terms of height, scale, and roof shape. Such buildings shall be placed away from the primary façade of the
building. Outbuildings may not obscure
character-defining features of a building.
9. Signage: Signage material will be compatible with the prominent
materials in the neighborhood. It shall be illuminated only externally (if
lighting is needed at all) and it should be appropriately incorporated into the
architecture of a structure or located appropriately on the property.
10. Materials, Texture, Details: Materials,
textures, and architectural features shall be visually compatible with the scale, placement, profile, and relief of
details on surrounding structures on the block or street. The most commonly
found exterior cladding in the neighborhood is wood siding, though there are a
number of structures made of solid brick. The DDRC may evaluate other materials
based upon their compatibility within
the district, the block on which the structure sits, and the materials found
therein. Horizontal siding must harmonize with the board size, width of
exposure, length, and trim detail such as corner boards on adjacent structures. Plastic, vinyl, or aluminum siding for new construction is not permitted.
vinyl, plastic, and aluminum are not acceptable replacement materials for any
features of existing structures, they are not acceptable materials for any part
of new construction with the exception of well-profiled aluminum-clad wood
11. Finished Floor Height and Site Grading: Extensive site grading that
would alter the natural street and structure rhythm of sloping sites is highly
discouraged. First-floor finished floor
elevations shall maintain the existing grades as reasonably as possible and in all
cases site grading must be focused on maintaining the existing characteristics
of the street while respecting existing contours.
SECTION VII ADDITIONS
It is often necessary to increase
the space of a building in order for it to continue to adapt to the owner’s
needs. Over time, a family’s space needs change and, in order to accommodate
these needs, a building may need to be enlarged. While these additions are permitted, they should serve to reinforce and not
detract from the existing architectural form and design of the building.
Additions should not significantly alter original
distinguishing qualities of buildings such as the basic form, materials,
fenestration, and stylistic elements. Additions
visible from the street should be
constructed so that the essential form and integrity of the original building will be readily
comprehended. Preferably, additions should be attached to the rear or least
conspicuous side of the building. They should
be compatible with yet distinct from the original
portions of building and should
result in minimal aesthetic damage to it. Character
defining features of the existing building should not be radically changed, obscured, damaged, or destroyed in
the process of adding new construction. Additions should be attached to the rear or least
conspicuous side of the structure. They should be constructed so that if
visible from the street, the essential form and integrity of the building will
Site additions shall be designed so
that they do not detract from or obstruct important architectural features of the existing building or others around
it, especially the principal façade.
2. Additions should be compatible with
the original structure in materials, style and detailing.
3. The size and scale of the new addition should be in proportion to the existing portion of the building and
clearly subordinate to it, so that the integrity of the original structure is
4. Additions are also subject to the
guidelines for new construction
5. Site grading shall reflect the
existing rhythm of finished floor elevatios along a street.
SECTION VIII MAINTENANCE & REHABILITATION
Rehabilitation is a practical approach to historic
preservation. It is the process of repairing or altering a historical building
while retaining its historical features. It represents a compromise between
remodeling, which offers no sensitivity to the historical features of a
building, and restoration, which is a more accurate but costly approach to
repair, replacement, and maintenance.
materials should be preserved, not
only for their historical value, but also because they are usually of better
quality and last longer than materials obtainable today.
guidelines are limited to the review of exterior elements visible from the
public right-of-way. The priority of the guidelines is to ensure the
preservation of a building’s character-defining features while accommodating an
efficient modern use.
features such as doors and entrances should
be preserved wherever possible. Changes to door size and configuration should be avoided. Replacement doors should either match the original or
substitute new materials and designs sympathetic to the original.
new entrances are required for practical reasons or to satisfy code
requirements. Placement of new entrances on principal façades should
be avoided. New entrances can result in loss of historical fabric and detailing
and change the rhythm of bays. New entrances should be compatible with
the building and be located on side or rear walls that are not readily visible
from the public right-of-way. If a historical entrance cannot be incorporated
into a contemporary use for the
building, the opening and any significant detailing should, nevertheless, be retained.
1. New openings shouldbe installed so that they carry on the same rhythm of existing openings and
are compatible in size, materials and design.
2. Historical door openings, doors, screen doors, trim,
and details such as transom, sidelights, pediments, and hoods should be
retained and repaired, where they contribute to the architectural character of
3. Missing or deteriorated doors should be replaced with doors that
closely match the original, or that are of compatible
4. New entrances on secondary elevations should be placed away from the main elevation. Non-functional entrances that are architecturally
significant should be preserved.
Simple or compatibly designed wooden screen doors may be added when
Windows are a significant character-defining
feature of any structure. Original windows were constructed so that individual
components could be repaired instead of requiring wholesale replacement if one
piece breaks or rots. This often means that an existing historical window will
be cheaper to repair than to replace. Additionally, materials in historical
windows tend to be of better quality than anything available today. The
following qualities of the original window must be carefully considered and
rigorously applied when repairing windows in order to maintain visual
consistency between new and existing window comonents:
· trim detail;
· pane size, shape
of frame, sash;
· location of
or set-back of window from wall plane;
reflective qualities of glass;
· muntin, mullion
Replacement of a Window
If, after careful evaluation, 50% or
more of a window is deteriorated or missing, it should be replaced rather than
repaired. Small differences between
replacement and historical windows can make big differences in appearance and
insulation. The qualities of the original window listed above should also be taken into consideration
when replacing a window.
Replacement of Multiple Windows
If more than 50% of the fenestration
visible from the street is rotted or beyond repair, then replacement of all
existing windows is permitted. While residents of the UACD are encouraged to
replicate the appearance of historical windows, it is not always necessary. In
the UACD, it is appropriate to
substitute for the original window a window that is configured commonly in the
architectural style of the house.
to ensure visual consistency, it is suggested that if replacing more than 50%
of existing windows, replacement, replacement widows and windows contiguous to
them should reflect the same pattern, design, detailing, etc.
1. When technically and
economically feasible, repair of deteriorated or damaged windows shall be preferred over replacement.
2. If replacement of a small number of
units is deemed necessary after evaluating the sill, frame, sash, paint and
wood surface, hardware, weather-stripping, stops, trim, operability, and
glazing, replace with units that match the original in detailing, size,
reflective quality, and materials.
If wholesale replacement is found to be necessary, either match the
original unit or substitute a unit appropriate
to the house’s period of significance,
maintaining the use of historical materials. Vinyl is not permitted as a
the thermal performance of existing windows and doors through adding or
replacing weather stripping and adding storm windows which are compatible with the character of the
building and which do not damage window frames.
there is physical or documentary evidence of their existence, shutters should not be mounted. If shutters are
found to be appropriate, they should be operable or appear to be
operable and measure the full height and one-half the width of the window frame.
They should be attached to the window
casing rather than to the exterior finish material. Wooden shutters with
horizontal louvers are the preferred type.
1. Installing shutters, screens, blinds, and
security grilles, and awnings which are historically inappropriate and which detract from the character of a building is
2. Shutters shouldbe installed only when there is enough space for them. They should appear
operable, they should be placed on the window casing, and the louvers should be
situated so that they would shed water when closed.
New awnings should
be of a design compatible with their
corresponding structure. Porch and window awnings that obscure significant
detailing are inappropriate and therefore
Angled, rectangular canvas awnings are most appropriate for flat-headed windows and
they should be installed so that they fit the window opening.
Porch and window awnings should be
made from appropriate material. All
awnings should be appropriate to the style and period of the structure.
are highly visibly components of historical buildings. They are an integral
part of a building’s overall design and often help define its architectural
style. The most common residential roof types are gable, hip, or a combination.
The original shape and pitch of the roof should
existing roofing material is non-original, the existing roof may be retained,
replaced in a manner known to be accurate based on documentation or physical
evidence, or treated in a contemporary
Rooftopadditions are another common change
to historical buildings. The additionshould be designed to be
distinguished from the historical portion of the building; be set back from the
wall plane; and be placed so it is inconspicuous when viewed from the street.
original roof form should be
preserved in the course of rehabilitation.
2. Historical roofing materials should be preserved when technically and
3. Deteriorated roof surfacing should be replaced with new material,
such as composition shingles or tabbed asphalt shingles that match or are
consistent with the existing materials in composition, size, shape, color, and
4. The following should be retained or replaced when necessary: dormer windows,
cupolas, cornices, brackets, chimneys, cresting, and other distinctive
architectural or stylistic features that give a roof its essential character.
structures in the UADC contain masonry features such as brick cornices or terra
cotta detailing. Surface treatments, modeling, tooling, bonding patterns, joint
size and color are important to the historical character of a building and must
not only be kept in good repair, but retained as close as possible to the
original in any restoration or rehabilitation.
masonry is the most durable historical building material, it is also the most
susceptible to damage by improper maintenance or repair techniques or abrasive
cleaning methods. Sandblasting and other abrasive cleaning methods are
specifically prohibited. Sandblasting not only changes the visual qualities of
brick, it damages or destroys the exterior glazing, increasing the likelihood
of rapid deterioration of the brick and water damage to the interior of the
historical masonry is an important concern and not to be undertaken without due
consideration for the historical appearance of the neighborhood. The color of
masonry, particularly brick, is often an important part of the character of a
building. In addition to color, the bonding pattern, treatment of mortar
joints, and texture are significant parts of brick buildings. Where brick and
other masonry finishes were unpainted, they should
generally remain so. Painting obscures detailing and alters the distinguishing
original qualities of a building. Under some circumstances, particularly where
the brick quality is poor or abrasive cleaning methods have been used, painting
brick may be appropriate as a
b. Principles • Wood
Where original wood siding exists on a structure, it should be retained. If it becomes
necessary to replace deteriorated boards, match the replacements to the
characteristics of the original. Important characteristics of wood siding that should be considered in its repair or
replacement are board size, width of exposure, length, and trim detail such as
of the greatest threats to wood siding is the application of non-historical
surface coverings such as aluminum and vinyl siding, or stucco. Application of
non-historical exterior finishes results in either the removal or covering of historical
materials and details. Decorative trim around doors, windows, and under
rooflines is frequently removed. Detailing of the wood itself, such as beveling
or beading, is also lost. Board width, length, and exposure are generally
changed, thus altering the scale and appearance of the building. Artificial
siding also frequently damages the fabric underneath. It can trap moisture and
encourage decay and insect infestation.
cases where artificial siding is already in place, its removal is not necessary
under the guidelines. An owner may retain the material or remove it, but it need not be replaced if only
minor repairs are necessary. If, however, more than a third of the material
needs to be repaired or removed, it must be replaced with historically appropriate materials.
the case of original asbestos or masonite siding, if its removal is required,
masonry, wood, or cement fiberboard siding is an appropriate replacement.
1. Masonry features that are important to defining
the overall historical character of the building such as walls, brackets,
railings, cornices, door pediments, steps, and columns, as well as joint and
unit size, tooling, and bonding patterns, coatings, and color should be
identified, retained and preserved.
2. Masonry surfaces should be cleaned by the gentlest method possible, such as water
and detergents and natural bristle brushes. Sandblasting is prohibited.
materials and features to be retained include siding, cornices, brackets,
soffits, fascia, window architrave, and doorway pediments. These are essential
components of a building’s appearance and architectural style which should not me obscured or otherwise
4. Repair or replacement of deteriorated material must
duplicate the original in size, shape, and texture as closely as possible. Original
characteristics such as board width, length, exposure, and trim detailing when
selecting a replacement material should
5. Artificial replacement siding over wood or
brick is not permitted.
6. Where a structure has asbestos or masonite as
original siding, it may be replaced with wood, brick, or cement fiberboard.
serve as a covered entrance to buildings and a transitional space between the
interior and exterior and are an important design feature. They are often the
principal location for ornamentation and detailing, such as brackets, posts and
columns, and balustrades. Size, style, ornateness or simplicity, sense of
openness, and detailing are important attributes of porches. Such features should be preserved during the course ofrehabilitating a building.
they are open to the elements, porches also require frequent maintenance and
repair. Deteriorated porch features should
be repaired rather than replaced. If replacement proves necessary, replacement
features and materials should
approximate the originals as closely as possible. If wholesale replacement is
required, the new porch should be
rebuilt based on historical research and physical evidence. If a porch or
individual features of it are missing and no documentation or physical evidence
is available, a new porch design that is compatible
with the scale, design, and materials of the remainder of the building is appropriate. In the UACD, missing or
deteriorated features must be replaced with compatible
ones found on similar structures in the district.
are often tempted to enclose porches for additional year-round living space.
Although porch enclosures are
generally not recommended, they can be done in an appropriate manner. Transparent materials,
such as clear glass enclosures or
screens that are set behind balustrade and structural systems and maintain the
visual openness of a porch are permitted.
1. Porches and steps that
are appropriate to a building should be retained.
2. If replacing deteriorated
or missing features, it is appropriate
to use other homes of the same style and period for the design of the new
feature, as long as it is compatible
with the structure.
If enclosures are undertaken,
maintain the openness of porches through the use of transparent materials such
as glass or screens. Place enclosures
behind significant detailing, so that the detailing is not obscured. Designs for nt porch enclosures
which alter the visual massing and volume of the building are prohibited.
SECTION IX RELOCATION
Much of a building’s value is in its context: the street on
which it sits, the buildings that surround it, and the landscape. Together,
these aspects create the fabric of a community ad establish the integrity of
the district. Therefore, a building should
normally remain in its context.
1. Moving a building into the UACD is permitted if the
building will be compatible with the historical
buildings surrounding the new location in terms of height, scale, setback, rhythm
of spacing, materials, texture, details, roof shape, orientation, and
proportion and rhythm of openings.
2. Moving a building out of the district is
building does not contribute to the district’s historical or architectural
significance, or has irretrievably lost its architectural and historical
The criteria for demolition in Section X
have been addressed satisfactorily and it is found that preservation on-site is
part of the review of a relocation, the following documents must be provided
o Report that the structure is safe to
o Documentation that the site to which
the structure will be relocated is suitable;
o Site plan of the lot showing
location of structure and setbacks from adjoining property lines;
o Rehabilitation plans once the
building is relocated
SECTION X DEMOLITION
The demolition of an historical building should be an action of last resort. When a structure is demolished,
the community loses an irreplaceable part of its history. When a house is
removed and not replaced, the fabric of the neighborhood is undermined.
Accordingly, such requests are reviewed very deliberately and require detailed
information. Additionally, the removal of a structure is
permitted in only the most extreme of circumstances and when all other options
have been exhausted. Demolition or
relocation should normally be
considered only for non-contributing
structures, though demolition may be
deemed necessary (for instance by the Inspections Department), given certain
conditions and careful review.
Criteria for demolition
fall under the Code of Ordinances for the City of Columbia as well as the Rules
and Regulations of the Design/Development Review Commission. They must be
consulted and observed before any demolition
can take place.
Please also see the Land Development
ordinance for additional definitions.
Addition: 1. Construction
that increases the living or working space of an existing structure, and is
capable of being mechanically heated or cooled. (ex. porch enclosures,
room additions, etc.) 2. An alteration that changes the
exterior height of any portion of an existing building. 3. Any extension of the
footprint of the structure, including porches and decks.
(appropriateness): preservation and urban design as set forth in
the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and these guidelines.
Any of the component parts that comprise the exterior of
a building, structure or object that convey the style of a building. (ex.
Victorian, Bungalow, etc....)
feature: a detail or part
of a structure that imparts style or design and distinguishes it from other
structures (ex. porch railings, decorative windows)
to conform or be in harmony with the components of the
style of a building or the character of a district.
from the period at which the house was built or the style in which it was originally
designed; “contemporary” in this document does not
necessarily mean “modern” or refer to a particular style of modern
(building/structure/site): A building, structure or site that
reinforces the visual integrity or interpretability of a historical district. Acontributing building is not necessarily
“historical” (50 years old or older). A contributing
building may lack individual distinction but add to the historical district’s
status as a significant and distinguishable entity.
deconstruction in whole or in part of a building, object, or site.
1. Height in terms of distance from grade; 2. an exterior
wall of a building, usually used in referring to portions other than the façade.
To close off a previously exterior open space, through
the installation of walls or other devices.
Exterior Change: An
action that would alter the appearance of a structure. Examples include: change
in roof pitch or form, or replacing or covering exterior siding with substitute
material, reducing, enlarging, closing or relocating window or door openings
An exterior side of a building; usually the front elevation
of the building.
maintenance and repair: Work meant to
remedy damage due to deterioration of a structure or its appurtenances or
general wear and tear, which will involve no change in materials, dimensions,
design, configuration, color, texture or visual appearance.
Substantive; substantial; as in
considerable amount of
The strips of the window that divides the glass into
panes or lights. Muntins
are horizontal, mullions
The construction of any freestanding structure on a lot
that ordinarily requires a permit. This may apply to a variety of activities
such as storage buildings, carports & garages, secondary dwellings, etc.
(building/ structure/site): A building,
structure or site which no longer reinforces the visual integrity of the
district either because it is a vacant parcel, it is a structure that was built
outside of the period of significance
of the district or it is an historical structure that has lost its integrity
through inappropriate additions
or the loss of three or more of its original character defining
features i.e. porch, windows, siding.
significance: a. For
an individual structure: the date of construction plus or minus ten years; b.
for a district, the span of time from the date of the oldest building
within the boundaries to the date by which significant development ended.
Reconstruct:To rebuild a structure after it has been destroyed or
Rehabilitate:To repair or alter an historical building while retaining
its historical features.
Restore:To return a structure to its orginal condition.
yard: The non-primary side of a building
on a corner lot.
What must happen.
What must happen unless evidence is presented to
illustrate why an alternative is more suitable.
Those trees panted or located in the public right-of-way.